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The 999 Greatest Works of Literature

This is our flagship list, presenting the greatest works of literature from ancient to recent times, covering all literary forms, genres, cultures and eras.

It's based on more than two decades of research with readers, writers, critics and scholars, as well as the assimilation of titles from more than 220 popular best-of lists, anthologies, collections, educational curricula and literary awards.

This list is for major creative works. A few significant shorter pieces may be included but are mostly reserved for their own lists. A few nonfiction works of exceptional literary value may also be included.

How were these titles chosen? Why "999"? How has the list evolved? For a complete report, see "Creating the Greatest Literature of All Time".

Latest update: March 24, 2024

 

AncientMedievalRenaissance18th-century19th-century20th-century21st-century

c.2100–1200 BCE
missing graphic
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Babylon, poem
c.1990 BCE
missing graphic
"The Shipwrecked Sailor"
Egypt, story
c.1875 BCE
missing graphic
"The Tale of Sinuhe"
Egypt, story
 
missing graphic
"The Eloquent Peasant"
Egypt, story
c.1200 BCE–100 CE
missing graphic
The Hebrew Bible (The Old Testament)
Various authors
Middle East, prose and poetry
c.1000–600 BCE
Classic of Poetry
Various authors
China, poetry collection
c.750 BCE
missing graphic
Iliad
Greece, poem
 
missing graphic
The Odyssey
Greece, poem
c.700 BCE
missing graphic
Theogony
Greece, poem
 
missing graphic
Works and Days
Greece, poem
c.600 BCE–200 CE
Ramayana
Valmiki
India, poem
c.610–580 BCE
Sappho's Poems
Sappho
Greece, poetry collection
c.600–500 BCE
Aesop's Fables
Aesop
Greece, story collection
Includes "The Fox and the Grapes", "The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs", "The Tortoise and the Hare", and others
c.520–440 BCE
Epinician Odes
Pindar
Greece, poetry collection
475 BCE
Olympian
Pindar
Greece, poetry collection
472 BCE
The Persians
Aeschylus
Greece, play
458 BCE
The Oresteia
Aeschylus
Greece, play series
Includes Agamemnon, The Eumenides, The Libation Bearers
c.450–425 BCE
Prometheus Bound
Aeschylus
Greece, play
442–441 BCE
missing graphic
Antigone
Sophocles
Greece, play
431 BCE
Medea
Euripides
Greece, play
429 BCE
missing graphic
Oedipus Rex
Sophocles
Greece, play
428 BCE
Hippolytus
Euripides
Greece, play
 
Andromache
Euripides
Greece, play
423 BCE
The Clouds
Aristophanes
Greece, play
422 BCE
The Wasps
Aristophanes
Greece, play
c.420–410 BCE
Electra
Sophocles
Greece, play
418 BCE
Electra
Euripides
Greece, play
415 BCE
The Trojan Women
Euripides
Greece, play
414 BCE
The Birds
Aristophanes
Greece, play
411 BCE
Lysistrata
Aristophanes
Greece, play
406 BCE
The Bacchae
Euripides
Greece, play
405 BCE
The Frogs
Aristophanes
Greece, play
401 BCE
Oedipus at Colonus
Sophocles
Greece, play
c.400 BCE–400 CE
Mahābhārata
Anonymous
India, poem
c.380 BCE
missing graphic
Republic
Plato
Greece, dialogue
c.270 BCE
Idylls
Theocritus
Greece, poetry collection
c.250 BCE
Voyage of the Argonauts
Appollonius of Rhodes
Greece, poem
c.200 BCE
The Twin Brothers
Plautus
Rome, play
c.50 BCE
On the Nature of Things
Lucretius
Rome, poem
c.41–37 BCE
Eclogues
Virgil
Rome, poetry collection
c.35–30 BCE
Satires
Horace
Rome, poetry collection
29 BCE
Georgics
Virgil
Rome, poetry collection
c.29–19 BCE
Aeneid
Virgil
Rome, poem
c.29–16 BCE
Elegies
Sextus Propertius
Rome, poetry collection
23–13 BCE
Odes
Horace
Rome, poetry collection
c.10 BCE
The Art of Love
Rome, poem
c.8 CE
missing graphic
Metamorphoses
Rome, poem
c.48–110 CE
missing graphic
The New Testament
Various authors
Middle East, prose and poetry
c.60-70 CE
Satyricon
Gaius Petronius Arbiter
Rome, novel
c.86–103 CE
Epigrams
Martial
Rome, poetry collection
c.100 CE
Parallel Lives
Plutarch
Greece, biography
c.100–127 CE
Satires
Juvenal
Rome, poetry collection
c.150 CE
The Golden Ass
Lucius Apuleius
Numidia, novel
c.300 CE
The Vision of Vasavadatta
Bhāsa
India, play
c.400 CE
The Recognition of Sakuntala
Kalidasa
India, play

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c.700 CE
missing graphic
Beowulf
England, poem
c.759
Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro and others
Japan, poetry collection
c.800–1200
Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor
Anonymous
Persia, story collection
c.800–1400
One Thousand and One Nights
Anonymous
Persia, story collection
Includes "Tale of the Fisherman and the Jinni", "The Tale of the Three Apples", "The Barber's Tale of Himself", and others
977–1010
The Book of Kings
Ferdowsi
Persia, poem
c.1000
The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon
Sei Shonagon
Japan, diary
c.1000–1300
The Poetic Edda
Anonymous
Iceland, poem
c.1020
missing graphic
The Tale of Genji
Japan, novel
c.1100
Song of Roland
Anonymous
France, poem
 
Rubaiyat
Omar Khayyám
Persia, poetry collection
c.1140
The Poem of the Cid
Anonymous
Spain, poem
1177
The Conference of the Birds
Farid od-Din Attar
Persia, poem
c.1177–1181
Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart
Chrétien de Troyes
France, poem
c.1180
Lais of Marie de France
Marie de France
England, poetry collection
c.1200
The Nibelungenlied
Anonymous
Germany, poem
1210
Tristan und Isolde
Gottfied von Strassburg
Germany, poem
c.1220
The Tale of the Heike
Anonymous
Japan, novel
1230–1275
Romance of the Rose
Guillaume de Lorris, Jean de Meun
France, poem
c.1250
The Saga of Burnt Njal
Anonymous
Iceland, poem
1257
The Orchard
Saadi Shirazi
Persia, poetry collection
1258
The Garden
Saadi Shirazi
Persia, poetry collection
1258–1273
Masnavi
Rumi
Persia, poem
1307
The Divine Comedy
Alighieri Dante
Italy, poem
1327–1368
Il Canzoniere
Francesco Petrarch
Italy, poetry collection
1348
The Decameron
Giovanni Boccaccio
Italy, story collection
c.1350
The Divān of Hafez
Hafez
Persia, poem
1352
The Triumphs
Giovanni Boccaccio
Italy, poem
c.1360–1400
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Luo Guanzhong
China, novel
c.1360–1589
Water Margin
Shi Nai'an, Luo Guanzhong
China, novel
1362
The Vision of Piers the Ploughman
William Langland
England, Poetry
c.1382–1386
Troilus and Cressida
Geoffrey Chaucer
England, poem
1387
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Anonymous
England, poem
c.1387–1400
The Canterbury Tales
Geoffrey Chaucer
England, prose and poetry collection
1405
The Book of the City of Ladies
Christine de Pizan
Italy, novel
1483–1495
Orlando Innamorato
Matteo Maria Boiardo
Italy, poem
1485
Le Morte d'Arthur
Thomas Malory
England, novel
1494
Ship of Fools
Sebastian Brant
Germany, poetry collection
1499
La Celestina
Fernando de Rojas
Spain, novel

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1516
Utopia
Thomas More
England, novella
1516–1532
Orlando Furioso
Ludovico Ariosto
Italy, poem
1528
The Book of the Courtier
Baldasarre Castiglione
Italy, nonfiction
1532–1564
The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel
Francois Rabelais
France, novel series
Includes Pantagruel, Gargantua, The Third Book of Pantagruel, The Fourth Book of Pantagruel, The Fifth Book of Pantagruel
1558
The Heptaméron
Marguerite de Navarre
France, story collection
1572
The Lusiads
Luis de Camoëns
Portugal, poem
1580–1593
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
Philip Sidney
England, novel
1586
The Spanish Tragedy
Thomas Kyd
England, play
1587
Tamburlaine the Great
Christopher Marlowe
England, play
1589
The Faerie Queen
Edmund Spenser
England, poem
c.1590
The Golden Lotus
Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng
China, novel
c.1590–1599
Satires
John Donne
England, poetry collection
 
Elegies
John Donne
England, poetry collection
1591
Richard III
William Shakespeare
England, play
1592
Journey to the West
Wu Cheng'en
China, novel
 
missing graphic
Edward II
Christopher Marlowe
England, play
1594
Doctor Faustus
Christopher Marlowe
England, play
 
The Unfortunate Traveller
Thomas Nashe
England, novel
 
A Midsummer Night's Dream
England, play
c.1596
missing graphic
Romeo and Juliet
England, play
c.1597
missing graphic
The Merchant of Venice
England, play
 
missing graphic
Henry IV, Part 1
England, play
 
Henry IV, Part 2
England, play
1598
The Peony Pavilion
Tang Xianzu
China, play
1599
missing graphic
Julius Caesar
England, play
c.1599
Henry V
England, play
1601
missing graphic
Hamlet
England, play
1601–1602
Twelfth Night
England, play
1603
A Woman Killed with Kindness
Thomas Heywood
England, play
1604
missing graphic
Othello
England, play
1604–1605
The Honest Whore
Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton
England, play
1605
Investiture of the Gods
Xu Zhonglin
China, novel
1605–1615
missing graphic
Don Quixote
Spain, novel
1606
Volpone
Ben Jonson
England, play
c.1606
missing graphic
King Lear
England, play
 
missing graphic
Macbeth
England, play
1609
missing graphic
Sonnets
England, poetry collection
Includes "Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?"; "When, in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes"; and others
1610
The Alchemist
Ben Jonson
England, play
1611
missing graphic
The Tempest
England, play
 
Solitudes
Luis de Góngora
Spain, poem
1622
The Changeling
Thomas Middleton, William Rowley
England, play
1633
missing graphic
'Tis Pity She's a Whore
John Ford
England, play
 
The Temple
George Herbert
England, poetry collection
1635
Life Is a Dream
Pedro Calderón de la Barca
Spain, play
1636
Le Cid
Pierre Corneille
France, play
1643
The Mayor of Zalamea
Pedro Calderón de la Barca
Spain, play
1648
Hesperides
Robert Herrick
England, poetry collection
Includes "To the Virgins","To Make Much of Time", "Upon Julia’s Clothes", and others
1662
The School for Wives
France, play
1664
missing graphic
Tartuffe
France, play
1666
missing graphic
The Misanthrope
France, play
1667
Paradise Lost
John Milton
England, poem
 
Andromaque
Jean Racine
France, play
1668–1694
La Fontaine's Fables
Jean de La Fontaine
France, poetry collection
Includes "The Fox and the Crow", "The Tortoise and the Hare", "The Ant and the Grasshopper", and others
1670
missing graphic
The Bourgeois Gentleman
France, play
1671
Samson Agonistes
John Milton
England, poem
1675
missing graphic
The Country Wife
William Wycherley
England, play
1677
missing graphic
All for Love
John Dryden
England, play
 
Phèdre
Jean Racine
France, play
1678
The Pilgrim's Progress
John Bunyan
England, novel
 
La Princesse de Clèves
Madame de La Fayette
France, novella
1688
missing graphic
Oroonoko
Aphra Behn
England, novella
1697
Tales of Mother Goose
Charles Perrault
France, story collection
Includes "Cinderella", "Puss in Boots", "Sleeping Beauty", "Little Red Riding Hood", "Bluebeard", and others
1700
The Way of the World
William Congreve
England, play

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1702
The Narrow Road to the Interior
Matsuo Bashō
Japan, prose and poetry collection
1712–1714
missing graphic
The Rape of the Lock
England, poem
1719
missing graphic
Robinson Crusoe
Daniel Defoe
England, novel
1719–1720
Love in Excess
Eliza Haywood
England, novel
1722
Moll Flanders
Daniel Defoe
England, novel
1726
Gulliver's Travels
Jonathan Swift
Ireland, novel
1728
The Beggar's Opera
John Gay
England, play
1728–1742
The Dunciad
England, poem
1730
The Game of Love and Chance
Marivaux
France, play
1731
Manon Lescaut
Antoine François Prévost
France, novel
1740
Pamela
Samuel Richardson
England, novel
1742
Joseph Andrews
Henry Fielding
England, novel
1748
Clarissa
Samuel Richardson
England, novel
1749
Tom Jones
Henry Fielding
England, novel
1750
The Scholars
Wu Jingzi
China, novel
1751
The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle
Tobias Smollett
England, novel
1759
Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia
Samuel Johnson
England, novella
 
Candide
Voltaire
England, novella
1759–1767
missing graphic
Tristram Shandy
England, novel
1761
Julie; or, The New Heloise
Jean Jacques Rousseau
England, novel
c. 1763
Three Hundred Tang Poems
Du Fu, Li Bai and others
China, poetry collection
1764
missing graphic
The Castle of Otranto
Horace Walpole
England, novella
1766
missing graphic
The Vicar of Wakefield
England, novel
1771
Humphrey Clinker
Tobias Smollett
England, novel
1773
missing graphic
She Stoops to Conquer
England, play
1774
missing graphic
The Sorrows of Young Werther
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Germany, novel
1775
The Rivals
Richard Sheridan
England, play
 
The Barber of Seville
Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais
France, play
1777
The School for Scandal
Richard Sheridan
England, play
1778
Evelina
Fanny Burney
England, novel
1779
Nathan the Wise
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Germany, play
 
Fables and Parables
Ignacy Krasicki
Poland, play
1782
Dangerous Liaisons
Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
France, novel
1784
The Marriage of Figaro
Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais
France, play
1785
The Task
William
Cowper, play
1786
missing graphic
Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect
Scotland, poetry collection
1789–1794
Songs of Innocence and Experience
William Blake
England, poetry collection
1791
Life of Samuel Johnson
James Boswell
England, biography
 
Justine
Marquis de Sade
France, novel
1791–1792
Dream of the Red Chamber
Cao Zhan
China, novel
1792
The Nun
Denis Diderot
France, novel
1794
The Mysteries of Udolpho
Ann Radcliffe
England, novel
1795–1796
William Meister's Apprenticeship
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Germany, novel
1796
Camilla
Fanny Burney
England, novel
 
The Monk
Matthew Lewis
England, novel
 
Jacques the Fatalist and His Master
Denis Diderot
France, novel
1797
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
England, poem
1797–1799
Hyperion
Friedrich Hölderlin
Germany, novel
1797–1806
Hymns and Fragments
Friedrich Hölderlin
Germany, poetry collection
1798–1800
Lyrical Ballads
William Wordsworth, Samuel Coleridge
England, poetry collection
1800
missing graphic
Castle Rackrent
Maria Edgeworth
Ireland, novella

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1807
Corinne
Germaine de Stael
France, novel
1808–1832
Faust
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Germany, play
1810
The Lady of the Lake
Walter Scott
Scotland, poem
1811
missing graphic
Sense and Sensibility
England, novel
 
Michael Kohlhaas
Heinrich von Kleist
Germany, novella
1812
Poems
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Germany, poetry collection
 
Swiss Family Robinson
Johann David Wyss
Switzerland, novel
1812–1818
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
George Gordon Byron
England, poem
1812–1857
missing graphic
Grimm's Fairy Tales
Germany, story collection
Includes "Cinderella", "Little Red Cap", "Hansel and Gretel", "Rapunzel", "Snow White", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Tom Thumb", and others
1813
missing graphic
Pride and Prejudice
England, novel
1814
missing graphic
Mansfield Park
England, novel
 
Waverley
Walter Scott
Scotland, novel
1815
missing graphic
Emma
England, novel
1816
Adolphe
Benjamin Constant
Switzerland, novel
1817
Rob Roy
Walter Scott
Scotland, novel
1818
Endymion
John Keats
England, poem
 
Nightmare Abbey
Thomas Love Peacock
England, novella
 
missing graphic
Frankenstein
England, novel
1819
Ivanhoe
Walter Scott
Scotland, novel
1819–1824
Don Juan
George Gordon Byron
England, poem
1820
Odes
John Keats
England, poetry collection
 
Prometheus Unbound
Percy Byssche Shelley
England, poem
 
Melmoth the Wanderer
Charles Maturin
Ireland, novel
 
missing graphic
"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
United States, story
1821
The Prince of Homburg
Heinrich von Kleist
Germany, play
1825
Boris Godunov
Alexander Pushkin
Russia, poem
1825–1832
Eugene Onegin
Alexander Pushkin
Russia, poem
1826
The Last of the Mohicans
James Fenimore Cooper
United States, novel
1827
Book of Songs
Heinrich Heine
Germany, poetry collection
1827–1842
The Betrothed
Alessandro Manzoni
Italy, novel
1831
Queen Margot
Alexandre Dumas
France, play
 
missing graphic
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
Victor-Marie Hugo
France, novel
 
The Red and the Black
Stendhal
France, novel
1833
Eugénie Grandet
Honoré de Balzac
France, novel
1834
Old Goriot
Honoré de Balzac
France, novel
 
missing graphic
The Last Days of Pompeii
England, novel
1835
Canti
Giacomo Leopardi
Italy, poetry collection
1836
The Government Inspector
Nikolai Gogol
Ukraine, play
1837
The Bronze Horseman
Alexander Pushkin
Russia, poem
1837–1843
Lost Illusions
Honoré de Balzac
France, novel
1838
missing graphic
Oliver Twist
England, novel
1839
The Charterhouse of Parma
Stendhal
France, novel
 
missing graphic
Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque
United States, story collection
Includes "The Fall of the House of Usher", "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall", "MS. Found in a Bottle", and others
1840
A Hero of Our Time
Mikhail Lermontov
Russia, novel
1841
The Deerslayer
James Fenimore Cooper
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
"The Murders in the Rue Morgue"
United States, story
1842
The Demon
Mikhail Lermontov
Russia, poem
 
Dead Souls
Nikolai Gogol
Ukraine, novel
1843
missing graphic
A Christmas Carol
England, novella
1843–1847
A Harlot High and Low
Honoré de Balzac
France, novel
1844
Poems
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
England, poetry collection
 
The Luck of Barry Lyndon
William Makepeace Thackeray
England, novel
 
The Three Musketeers
Alexandre Dumas
France, novel
1844–1846
The Count of Monte-Cristo
Alexandre Dumas
France, novel
1845
Carmen
Prosper Mérimée
France, novella
 
The Raven and Other Poems
United States, poetry collection
1846
Cousin Bette
Honoré de Balzac
France, novel
 
The Devil's Pool
George Sand
France, novel
1847
missing graphic
Jane Eyre
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Wuthering Heights
England, novel
 
Evangeline
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
United States, poem
1848
The Tenant of Wildfell Hall
Anne Brontë
England, novel
 
Vanity Fair
William Makepeace Thackeray
England, novel
 
The Lady of the Camellias
Alexandre Dumas, fils
France, novel
1850
Sonnets from the Portuguese
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
England, poetry collection
 
missing graphic
David Copperfield
England, novel
 
In Memoriam
Alfred Lord Tennyson
England, poem
 
The Prelude
William Woodsworth
England, poem
 
missing graphic
The Scarlet Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne
United States, novel
1851
Moby Dick
Herman Melville
United States, novel
 
The House of Seven Gables
Nathaniel Hawthorne
United States, novel
1852
Camille
Alexandre Dumas, fils
France, play
 
Enamels and Cameos
Théophile Gautier
France, poetry collection
 
A Sportsman's Sketches
Ivan Turgenev
Russia, story collection
 
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States, novel
1853
missing graphic
Bleak House
England, novel
 
Cranford
Elizabeth Gaskell
England, novel
1855
Men and Women
Robert Browning
England, poetry collection
Includes "Love Among the Ruins", "Evelyn Hope", "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came", "Andrea del Sarto", and others
 
North and South
Elizabeth Gaskell
England, novel
 
The Warden
Anthony Trollope
England, novel
1855–1892
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman
United States, poetry collection
Includes "Song of Myself"; "I Sing the Body Electric"; "O Captain! My Captain!"; "Pioneers! O Pioneers!"; and others
1857
missing graphic
Little Dorrit
England, novel
 
Barchester Towers
Anthony Trollope
England, novel
 
The Flowers of Evil
Charles Baudelaire
France, Poetry
 
missing graphic
Madame Bovary
Gustave Flaubert
France, novel
1859
missing graphic
A Tale of Two Cities
England, novel
 
The Virginians
William Makepeace Thackeray
England, novel
 
Oblomov
Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov
Russia, novel
1859–1883
The Legend of the Ages
Victor Hugo
France, poetry collection
1859–1885
Idylls of the King
Alfred Lord Tennyson
England, poetry collection
1860
missing graphic
The Woman in White
England, novel
 
missing graphic
George Eliot
England, novel
 
Max Havelaar
Multatuli
Holland, novel
 
The Storm
Alexander Ostrovsky
Russia, play
1861
missing graphic
Great Expectations
England, novel
 
Silas Marner
England, novel
1862
Goblin Market and Other Poems
Christina Rossetti
England, poetry collection
 
missing graphic
Les Misérables
Victor-Marie Hugo
France, novel
 
Fathers and Sons
Ivan Turgenev
Russia, novel
1864
missing graphic
A Journey to the Centre of the Earth
Jules Verne
France, novel
 
Notes from Underground
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russia, novella
1865
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Lewis Carroll
England, novella
1865–1869
missing graphic
War and Peace
Leo Tolstoy
Russia, novel
1866
Crime and Punishment
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russia, novel
1867
Peer Gynt
Henrik Ibsen
Norway, play
1868
missing graphic
The Moonstone
England, novel
 
Therese Raquin
Émile Zola
France, novel
1868–1869
missing graphic
Little Women
Louisa May Alcott
United States, novel
 
The Songs of Maldoror
Comte de Lautréamont
France, poem
1869
Collected Poems
Matthew Arnold
England, poetry collection
 
Lorna Doone
Richard Blackmore
England, novel
 
Phineas Finn
Anthony Trollope
England, novel
 
A Sentimental Education
Gustave Flaubert
France, novel
1870
Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
Jules Verne
France, novel
 
King Lear of the Steppes
Ivan Turgenev
Ruissia, novella
1870–1881
The House of Life
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
England, poem 
1871
Through the Looking-Glass
Lewis Carroll
England, novella
 
Rimas
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Spain, poetry collection
1872
Fairy Tales and Stories
Hans Christian Andersen
Denmark, story collection
 
missing graphic
Erewhon
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Middlemarch
England, novel
 
The Possessed
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russia, novel
1872–1879
Martín Fierro
José Hernández
Argentina, poem
1873
A Season in Hell
Arthur Rimbaud
France, poem
 
Around the World in Eighty Days
Jules Verne
France, novel
1874
missing graphic
Far from the Madding Crowd
England, novel
 
The Idiot
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russia, novel
 
Anna Karenina
Leo Tolstoy
Russia, novel
1875
The Way We Live Now
Anthony Trollope
England, novel
1876
Daniel Deronda
England, novel
 
missing graphic
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Mark Twain
United States, novel
1877
Black Beauty
Anna Sewell
England, novel
 
The Drunkard
Émile Zola
France, novel
1879
A Doll's House
Henrik Ibsen
Norway, play
 
The Red Room
August Strindberg
Sweden, novel
1880
Nana
Émile Zola
France, novel
 
The Brothers Karamazov
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russia, novel
 
Ben-Hur
Lew Wallace
United States, novel
1881
The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cuba
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis
Brazil, novel
 
The Portrait of a Lady
Henry James
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Prince and the Pauper
Mark Twain
United States, novel
1883
A Woman's Life
Guy de Maupassant
France, novel
 
The Adventures of Pinocchio
Carlo Collodi
Italy, novel
 
missing graphic
Treasure Island
Scotland, novel
1884
Against Nature
Joris-Karl Huysman
France, novel
1884
missing graphic
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Mark Twain
United States, novel
1885
King Solomon's Mines
H. Rider Haggard
England, novel
 
Bel Ami
Guy de Maupassant
France, novel
 
Germinal
Émile Zola
France, novel
1886
missing graphic
The Mayor of Casterbridge
England, novel
 
The Death of Ivan Ilyich
Leo Tolstoy
Russia, novella
 
missing graphic
Kidnapped
Scotland, novel
 
missing graphic
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
Scotland, novella
 
Compassion
Benito Pérez Galdós
Spain, novel
1887
At Dusk
Anton Chekhov
Russia, story collection
Includes "Dreams", "A Trivial Occurrence", "A Bad Business", "At Home", "A Restless Guest", "On the Road", "Agafya", and others
 
The Father
August Strindberg
Sweden, play
1888
The Maias
José Maria Eça de Queirós
Portugal, novel
1889
Three Men in a Boat
Jerome K. Jerome
England, novel
 
The Kreutzer Sonata
Leo Tolstoy
Russia, novella
 
missing graphic
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
Mark Twain
United States, novel
1891
missing graphic
Tess of the D'Urbervilles
England, novel
 
News from Nowhere
William Morris
England, novel
 
missing graphic
The Picture of Dorian Gray
Oscar Wilde
Ireland, novel
 
Hedda Gabler
Henrik Ibsen
Norway, play
1892
Pelleas and Melisande
Maurice Maeterlinck
Belgium, play
 
missing graphic
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
England, story collection
Includes "A Scandal in Bohemia", "The Red-Headed League", "The Adventure of the Speckled Band", and others
 
The Diary of a Nobody
George and Weedon Grossmith
England, novel
 
Tales of Soldiers and Civilians
Ambrose Bierce
United States, story collection
1893
The Master Builder
Henrik Ibsen
Norway, play
1894
Arms and the Man
George Bernard Shaw
Ireland, play
 
Tevye Stories
Sholom Aleichem
Ukraine, story collection
1895
The Time Machine
H.G. Wells
England, novel
 
Effi Briest
Theodor Fontane
Germany, novel
 
The Importance of Being Earnest
Oscar Wilde
Ireland, play
 
missing graphic
The Red Badge of Courage
United States, novel
1896
missing graphic
Jude the Obscure
England, novel
 
missing graphic
A Shropshire Lad
A.E. Housman
England, poetry collection
 
The Island of Doctor Moreau
H.G. Wells
England, novel
 
The Seagull
Anton Chekhov
Russia, play
 
The Bostonians
Henry James
United States, novel
1897
missing graphic
Dracula
Ireland, novel
 
Pharoah
Bolesław Prus
Poland, novel
1898
The War of the Worlds
H.G. Wells
England, novel
 
Cyrano de Bergerac
Edmond Rostand
France, play
 
The Turn of the Screw
Henry James
United States, novella
1899
Hunger
Knut Hamsun
Norway, novel
 
The Awakening
Kate Chopin
United States, novel
1900
missing graphic
Lord Jim
Poland, novel
 
Uncle Vanya
Anton Chekhov
Russia, play
 
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
L. Frank Baum
United States, novella
 
Sister Carrie
Theodore Dreiser
United States, novel

Back to top of page

1901
Rudyard Kipling
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Buddenbrooks
Germany, novel
 
Three Sisters
Anton Chekhov
Russia, play
 
Resurrection
Leo Tolstoy
Russia, novel
1902
missing graphic
Heart of Darkness
England, novella
 
missing graphic
The Hound of the Baskervilles
England, novel
 
The Wings of the Dove
Henry James
United States, novel
1903
missing graphic
The Way of All Flesh
England, novel
 
The Riddle of the Sands
Erskine Childers
England, novel
 
Man and Superman
George Bernard Shaw
Ireland, play
 
The Cherry Orchard
Anton Chekhov
Russia, play
 
The Ambassadors
Henry James
United States, novel
 
The Call of the Wild
Jack London
United States, novella
1904
Nostromo
England, novel
 
Riders to the Sea
John Millington Synge
Ireland, play
 
The Golden Bowl
Henry James
United States, novel
1905
Major Barbara
George Bernard Shaw
Ireland, play
 
The House of Mirth
Edith Wharton
United States, novel
1906
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair
United States, novel
1906–1921
missing graphic
The Forsyte Saga
England, novel series
Includes The Man of Property, In Chancery, To Let, and two interludes
1907
Songs of a Sourdough
Robert Service
Canada, poetry collection
 
The Travels of Lao Can
Liu E
China, novel
 
missing graphic
The Secret Agent
England, novel
 
The Playboy of the Western World
John Millington Synge
Ireland, play
 
Mother
Maxim Gorky
Russia, novel
1908
Anne of Green Gables
L.M. Montgomery
Canada, novel
 
The Old Wives' Tale
Arnold Bennett
England, novel
 
A Room with a View
E.M. Forster
England, novel
 
The Wind in the Willows
Kenneth Grahame
England, novel
1910
Howards End
E.M. Forster
England, novel
1911
missing graphic
The Innocence of Father Brown
England, story collection
Includes "The Blue Cross", "The Invisible Man", "The Hammer of God", and others
 
missing graphic
Under Western Eyes
England, novel
 
Ethan Frome
Edith Wharton
United States, novella
1912
Song Offerings
Rabindranath Tagore
Bengal, poetry collection
 
missing graphic
Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town
Canada, story collection
 
Zuleika Dobson
Max Beerbohm
England, novel
 
Poetical Works
Robert Bridges
England, poetry collection
 
missing graphic
Death in Venice
Germany, novel
1913
Sons and Lovers
D.H. Lawrence
England, novel
 
Alcohols
Guillaume Apollinaire
France, poetry collection
 
Le Grand Meaulnes
Alain-Fournier
France, novel
 
Petersburg
Andrei Bely
Russia, memoir
 
My Childhood
Maxim Gorky
Russia, memoir
1913–1927
In Search of Lost Time
Marcel Proust
France, novel
in seven volumes including Swann's Way, In the Shadow of Young Girls in Flower, The Guermantes Way, Time Regained, and others
1914
missing graphic
Dubliners
Ireland
Includes "The Sisters", "Araby", "Eveline", "Two Gallants", "Ivy Day in the Committee Room", "The Dead", and others
 
The Ragged-Trousered Philanthropists
Robert Tressell
Ireland, novel
 
Kokoro
Sōseki Natsume
Japan, novel
 
Platero and I
Juan Ramón Jiménez
Spain, poem
 
Tarzan of the Apes
Edgar Rice Burroughs
United States, novel
1914–1917
Bunch of Stories
Rabindranath Tagore
Bengal, story collection
1915
missing graphic
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
England, poem
 
The Good Soldier
Ford Maddox Ford
England, novel
 
The Rainbow
D.H. Lawrence
England, novel
 
Of Human Bondage
W. Somerset Maugham
England, novel
 
A Cloud in Trousers
Vladimir Mayakovsky
Russia, poem
 
missing graphic
The Thirty-Nine Steps
Scotland, novel
 
Spoon River Anthology
Edgar Lee Masters
United States, poetry collection
1916
The Home and the World
Rabindranath Tagore
Bengal, novel
 
The Metamorphosis
Franz Kafka
Bohemia, novella
 
France, novel
 
Pygmalion
George Bernard Shaw
Ireland, play
 
The Underdogs
Mariano Azuela
Mexico, novel
1918
Poems
Gerard Manley Hopkins
England, poetry collection
 
missing graphic
My Ántonia
United States, novel
1919
Winesburg, Ohio
Sherwood Anderson
United States, story collection
c.1919
China, novella
1920
Women in Love
D.H. Lawrence
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Main Street
Sinclair Lewis
United States, novel
 
The Age of Innocence
Edith Wharton
United States, novel
1920–1922
Kristin Lavransdatter
Sigrid Undset
Norway, novel series
Includes The Wreath, The Wife, The Cross
1920–1923
The Good Soldier Schweik
Jaroslav Hasek
Czechoslovakia, novel
1921
Six Characters in Search of an Author
Luigi Pirandello
Italy, play
1922
The Worm Ouroboros
E.R. Eddison
England, novel
 
missing graphic
The Waste Land
England, poem
 
Ireland, novel
 
Rashōmon and Other Stories
Ryūnosuke Akutagawa
Japan, story collection
 
missing graphic
The Garden Party and Other Stories
New Zealand, story collection
Includes "At the Bay", "The Garden Party", "The Daughters of the Late Colonel", "Miss Brill", and others
 
Siddhartha
Herman Hesse
Switzerland, novel
 
missing graphic
Tales of the Jazz Age
United States, story collection
Includes "May Day", "The Diamond as Big as the Ritz", "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button", and others
 
Babbitt
Sinclair Lewis
United States, novel
1923
Duino Elegies
Rainer Maria Rilke
Germany, poetry collection
 
Saint Joan
George Bernard Shaw
Ireland, play
 
The Confessions of Zeno
Italo Svevo
Italy, novel
 
Chapayev
Dmitry Furmanov
Russia, novel
 
New Hampshire
Robert Frost
United States, poetry collection
Includes "Fire and Ice", "Nothing Gold Can Stay", "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening", and others
 
The Prophet
Kahlil Gibran
United States, Prose poetry
1924
A Passage to India
E.M. Forster
England, novel
 
The Magic Mountain
Germany, novel
 
Juno and the Paycock
Sean O'Casey
Ireland, play
 
We
Yevgeny Zamyatin
Russia, novel
 
Billy Budd, Foretopman
Herman Melville
United States, novel
1925
Residence on Earth and Other Poems
Pablo Neruda
Chile, poetry collection
 
The Trial
Franz Kafka
Bohemia, novel
 
The Murder of Roger Ackroyd
England, novel
 
England, poem
 
Parade's End
Ford Maddox Ford
England, novel
 
England, novel
 
The Counterfeiters
André Gide
France, novel
 
Heart of a Dog
Mikhail Bulgakov
Russia, novella
 
An American Tragedy
Theodore Dreiser
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Great Gatsby
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
In Our Time
United States, story collection
Includes "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife", "The Three-Day Blow", "The Big Two-Hearted River", and others
1926
The Castle
Franz Kafka
Bohemia, novel
 
Winnie-the-Pooh
A.A. Milne
England, story collection
 
The Counterfeiters
André Gide
France, novel
 
The Plough and the Stars
Sean O'Casey
Ireland, play
 
missing graphic
The Sun Also Rises
United States, novel
1927
England, novel
 
Steppenwolf
Herman Hesse
Switzerland, novel
 
missing graphic
Death Comes for the Archbishop
United States, novel
 
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
Thornton Wilder
United States, novella
1928
England, novel
 
Lady Chatterley's Lover
D.H. Lawrence
England, novel
 
Orlando
Virginia Woolf
France, biography
 
Nadja
André Breton
France, novel
 
The Three-Penny Opera
Bertolt Brecht
Germany, play
 
And Quiet Flows the Don
Mikhail Sholokov
Russia, novel
 
Gypsy Ballads
Federico Garcia Lorca
Spain, poetry collection
1929
A High Wind in Jamaica
Richard Hughes
England, novel
 
Berlin Alexanderplatz
Alfred Döblin
Germany, novel
 
missing graphic
All Quiet on the Western Front
Germany, novel
 
The Time of Indifference
Alberto Moravia
Italy, novel
 
Some Prefer Nettles
Jun'ichiro Tanizaki
Japan, novel
 
The Sound and the Fury
William Faulkner
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
A Farewell to Arms
United States, novel
 
Look Homeward, Angel
Thomas Wolfe
United States, novel
1930
The Bridge
Hart Crane
United States, poem
 
As I Lay Dying
William Faulkner
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Maltese Falcon
United States, novel
1930–1936
U.S.A.
John Dos Passos
United States, novel series
Includes The 42nd Parallel, 1919, The Big Money
1930–1943
The Man Without Qualities
Robert Musil
Austria, novel
1931
The Waves
England, novel
 
missing graphic
The Good Earth
Pearl S. Buck
United States, novel
 
At the Mountains of Madness
H.P. Lovecraft
United States, novel
 
Guys and Dolls
Damon Runyon
United States, story collection
1932
missing graphic
Brave New World
England, novel
 
Journey to the End of the Night
Louis-Ferdinand Céline
France, novel
 
Viper's Tangle
Francois Mauriac
France, novel
 
Tobacco Road
Erskine Caldwell
United States, novel
 
Light in August
William Faulkner
United States, novel
1932–1935
Studs Lonigan
James T. Farrell
United States, novel series
Includes Young Lonigan, The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan, Judgment Day
1933
Man's Fate
André Malraux
France, novel
 
The Tower
W.B. Yeats
Ireland, poetry collection
 
Blood Wedding
Federico Garcia Lorca
Spain, play
 
The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
Gertrude Stein
United States, novel
 
Miss Lonelyhearts
Nathanael West
United States, novella
1934
missing graphic
Murder on the Orient Express
England, novel
 
missing graphic
I, Claudius
England, novel
 
The Nine Tailors
Dorothy L. Sayers
England, novel
 
A Handful of Dust
Evelyn Waugh
England, novel
 
missing graphic
The Postman Always Rings Twice
United States, novella
 
missing graphic
Tender Is the Night
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Thin Man
United States, novel
 
Tropic of Cancer
Henry Miller
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
Appointment in Samarra
United States, novel
1934–1935
Independent People
Halldór Laxness
Iceland, novel
1935
Auto-da-Fé
Elias Canetti
Austria, novel
 
China, story collection
 
Untouchable
Mulk Raj Anand
India, novel
 
missing graphic
The Doctor's Son and Other Stories
United States, story collection
 
Call It Sleep
Henry Roth
United States, novel
 
Awake and Sing!
Clifford Odets
United States, play
1936
Rickshaw Boy
Lao She
China, novel
 
Invitation to a Beheading
Vladimir Nabokov
Russia, novel
 
Absalom, Absalom!
William Faulkner
United States, novel
 
Gone with the Wind
Margaret Mitchell
United States, novel
1937
Out of Africa
Karen Blixen
Denmark, memoir
 
The Hobbit
J.R.R. Tolkien
England, novel
 
The Blind Owl
Sadegh Hedayat
Iran, novel
 
Their Eyes Were Watching God
Zora Neale Hurston
United States, novel
 
United States, novella
1933
Rebecca
Daphne du Maurier
England, novel
 
Brighton Rock
Graham Greene
England, novel
 
Scoop
Evelyn Waugh
England, novel
 
Nausea
Jean-Paul Sartre
France, novel
 
The Death of the Heart
Elizabeth Bowen
Ireland, novel
 
Thornton Wilder
United States, play
1939
missing graphic
And Then There Were None
England, novel
 
Mother Courage and Her Children
Bertolt Brecht
Germany, play
 
missing graphic
Finnegans Wake
Ireland, novel
 
At Swim-Two-Birds
Flann O'Brien
Ireland, novel
 
missing graphic
The Big Sleep
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Little Foxes
Lillian Hellman
United States, play
 
Pale Horse, Pale Rider
Katherine Anne Porter
United States, story collection
 
missing graphic
The Grapes of Wrath
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Day of the Locust
Nathanael West
United States, novel
1940
The Invention of Morel
Adolfo Bioy Casares
Argentina, novel
 
The Man Who Loved Children
Christina Stead
Australia, novel
 
The Power and the Glory
Graham Greene
England, novel
 
England, novel
 
The Tartar Steppe
Dino Buzzati
Italy, novel
 
The Don Flows Home to the Sea
Mikhail Sholokov
Russia, novel
 
Poet in New York
Federico García Lorca
Spain, poetry collection
 
missing graphic
For Whom the Bell Tolls
United States, novel
 
The Heart is a Lonely Hunter
Carson McCullers
United States, novel
 
Native Son
Richard Wright
United States, novel
1941
Blithe Spirit
Noel Coward
England, play
 
United States, novel
1941–1956
Fictions
Jorge Luis Borges
Argentina, story collection
1942
The Outsider
Albert Camus
Algeria, novella
1943
missing graphic
The Little Prince
France, novella
 
The Fountainhead
Ayn Rand
United States, novel
1944
The Horse's Mouth
Joyce Cary
England, novel
 
Aurélien
Louis Aragon
France, novel
 
Our Lady of the Flowers
Jean Genet
France, novel
 
No Exit
Jean-Paul Sartre
France, play
 
The Makioka Sisters
Jun'ichirō Tanizaki
Japan, novel
1945
The Tin Flute
Gabrielle Roy
Canada, novel
 
Loving
Henry Green
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Animal Farm
England, novella
 
missing graphic
Brideshead Revisited
Evelyn Waugh
England, novel
 
The Caucasian Chalk Circle
Bertolt Brecht
Germany, play
 
The Glass Bead Game
Herman Hesse
Switzerland, novel
 
The Glass Menagerie
Tennessee Williams
United States, play
1945–1948
Pippi Longstocking
Astrid Lindgren
Sweden, novella series
Includes Pippi Longstocking, Pippi Goes on Board, Pippi in the South Seas
1946
Zorba the Greek
Nikos Kazantzakis
Greece, novel
 
The Iceman Cometh
Eugene O'Neill
United States, play
 
All the King's Men
Robert Penn Warren
United States, novel
1947
The Plague
Albert Camus
Algeria, novella
 
The Age of Anxiety
W.H. Auden
England, poem
 
Under the Volcano
Malcolm Lowry
England, novel
 
A Case to Answer
Edgar Lustgarten
England, novel
 
The Diary of a Young Girl
Anne Frank
Germany, memoir
 
Doctor Faustus
Thomas Mann
Germany, novel
 
If This Is a Man
Primo Levy
Italy, memoir
 
A Streetcar Named Desire
Tennessee Williams
United States, play
1948
All About H. Haterr
G.V. Desani
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Graham Greene
England, novel
 
Snow Country
Yasunari Kawabata
Japan, novel
 
Cry, the Beloved Country
Alan Paton
South Africa, novel
 
missing graphic
The Naked and the Dead
United States, novel
1949
The Kingdom of This World
Allejo Carpentier
Cuba, novel
 
missing graphic
Nineteen Eighty-Four
England, novel
 
The Man with the Golden Arm
Nelson Algren
United States, novel
 
The Sheltering Sky
Paul Bowles
United States, novel
 
Death of a Salesman
Arthur Miller
United States, play
1949–1959
The Emigrants
Vilhlem Moberg
Sweden, novel series
Includes The Emigrants, Unto a Good Land, The Settlers, The Last Letter Home
1950
England, novel
 
The Bald Soporano
Eugène Ionesco
France, play
 
missing graphic
I, Robot
United States, story collection
Includes "Robbie", "Runaround", "Reason", "Catch that Rabbit", "Liar!", "Little Lost Robot", and others
 
The Martian Chronicles
United States, story collection

Back to top of page

1950–1956
missing graphic
The Chronicles of Narnia
C.S. Lewis
England, novel series
Includes The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; Prince Caspian; The Voyage of the Dawn Treader; and others
1951
Memoirs of Hadrian
Marguerite Yourcenar
Belgium, novel
 
The End of the Affair
Graham Greene
England, novel
 
The Day of the Triffids
John Wyndham
England, novel
 
The Daughter of Time
Josephine Tey
Scotland, novel
 
From Here to Eternity
James Jones
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Catcher in the Rye
United States, novel
1951–1953
The Trilogy
Samuel Beckett
Ireland, novel series
Includes Molly, Malone Dies, The Unnamable
 
missing graphic
The Foundation Trilogy
United States, novel series
Includes Foundation, Foundation and Empire, Second Foundation
1951–1975
A Dance to the Music of Time
Anthony Powell
England, novel series
1952
The Chairs
Eugene Ionesco
France, play
 
Waiting for Godot
Samuel Beckett
Ireland, play
 
Thousand Cranes
Yasunari Kawabata
Japan, novel
 
Invisible Man
Ralph Ellison
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Old Man and the Sea
United States, novella
 
Wise Blood
Flannery O'Connor
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
East of Eden
United States, novel
 
Charlotte's Web
E.B. White
United States, novel
 
A Child's Christmas in Wales
Dylan Thomas
Wales, story
1953
Childhood's End
Arthur C. Clarke
England, novel
 
The Go-Between
L.P. Hartley
England, novel
 
The Burning Plain and Other Stories
Juan Rulfo
Mexico, story collection
 
The Adventures of Augie March
Saul Bellow
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
Fahrenheit 451
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Long Goodbye
United States, novel
1954
Lucky Jim
Kingsley Amis
England, novel
 
Lord of the Flies
William Golding
England, novel
 
Under the Net
Iris Murdoch
England, novel
 
The Mandarins
Simone de Beauvoir
France, novel
 
Hello Sadness
Francoise Sagan
France, novel
 
Nectar in a Sieve
Kamala Markandaya
India, novel
 
Go Tell It on the Mountain
James Baldwin
United States, novel
1954–1955
Lord of the Rings
J.R.R. Tolkien
England, novel
1955
missing graphic
Graham Greene
England, novel
 
Pedro Paramo
Juan Rulfo
Mexico, novella
 
missing graphic
Lolita
Vladimir Nabokov
Russia, novel
 
The Complete Poems
Emily Dickinson
United States, poetry collection
 
The Recognitions
William Gaddis
United States, novel
 
The Talented Mr. Ripley
Patricia Highsmith
United States, novel
 
A Good Man Is Hard to Find
Flannery O'Connor
United States, story collection
1956
The Devil to Pay in the Backlands
João Guimarães Rosa
Brazil, novel
 
Look Back in Anger
John Osburn
England, play
 
The Temple of the Golden Pavilion
Yukio Mishima
Japan, novel
 
The Visit
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Switzerland, play
 
Giovanni's Room
James Baldwin
United States, novel
 
Howl
Allen Ginsberg
United States, poem
 
Long Day's Journey into Night
Eugene O'Neill
United States, play
 
Night
Elie Wiesel
United States, memoir
 
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
Tennessee Williams
United States, play
1956–1957
Cairo trilogy
Naguib Mahfouz
Egypt, novel series
1957
Voss
Patrick White
Australia, novel
 
missing graphic
On the Beach
England, novel
 
The Midwich Cuckoos
John Wyndham
England, novel
 
Jealousy
Alain Robbe-Grillet
France, novel
 
Endgame
Samuel Beckett
Ireland, play
 
Pnin
Vladimir Nabokov
Russia, novel
 
Doctor Zhivago
Boris Pasternak
Russia, novel
 
United States, novel
 
The Wapshot Chronicle
John Cheever
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
On the Road
United States, novel
 
Atlas Shrugged
Ayn Rand
United States, novel
1957–1960
The Alexandria Quartet
Laurence Durrell
England, novel series
1958
Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon
Jorge Amado
Brazil, novel
 
The Caretaker
Harold Pinter
England, play
 
Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
Alan Sillitoe
England, novel
 
The Once and Future King
T.H. White
England, novel
 
The Guide
R.K. Narayan
India, novel
 
The Leopard
Giusseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa
Italy, novel
 
Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe
Nigeria, novel
 
Breakfast at Tiffany's
Truman Capote
United States, novella
1959
missing graphic
Canada, story collection
Includes "All the Years of Her Life", "A Sick Call", "Now That April's Here", "Ancient Lineage", "Two Fishermen", and others
 
The Golden Notebook
Doris Lessing
England, novel
 
The Tin Drum
Günter Grass
Germany, novel
 
Henderson the Rain King
Saul Bellow
United States, novel
 
Naked Lunch
William S. Burroughs
United States, novel
 
A Raisin in the Sun
Lorraine Hansberrry
United States, play
 
missing graphic
The Galton Case
United States, novel
1960
United States, novel
 
A Canticle for Leibowitz
Walter M. Miller
United States, novel
 
Rabbit, Run
John Updike
United States, novel
1961
Solaris
Stanislaw Lem
Poland, novel
 
The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie
Muriel Spark
Scotland, novel
 
A House for Mr Biswas
V.S. Naipaul
Trinidad, novel
 
missing graphic
Catch-22
Joseph Heller
United States, novel
 
The Moviegoer
Walker Percy
United States, novel
 
Franny and Zooey
J.D. Salinger
United States, novel
 
Revolutionary Road
Richard Yates
United States, novel
1962
A Clockwork Orange
Anthony Burgess
England, novel
 
The Death of Artemio Cruz
Carlos Fuentes
Mexico, novel
 
Pale Fire
Vladimir Nabokov
Russia, novel
 
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Russia, novella
 
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Edward Albee
United States, play
 
missing graphic
The Man in the High Castle
United States, novel
 
We Have Always Lived in the Castle
Shirley Jackson
United States, novel
 
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
Ken Kesey
United States, novel
 
Ship of Fools
Katherine Anne Porter
United States, novel
1962–1983
Labyrinths
Jorge Luis Borges
Argentina, story collection
1963
The General of the Dead Army
Ismail Kadare
Albania, novel
 
Hopscotch
Julio Cortazar
Argentina, novel
 
The Garden Party
Vaclav Havel
Czechoslovakia, play
 
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
John le Carré
England, novel
 
The Crucible
Arthur Miller
United States, play
 
Cat's Cradle
Kurt Vonnegut
United States, novel
1964
The Rashiching of Lol Stein
Marguerite Duras
France, novel
 
Arrow of God
Chinua Achebe
Nigeria, novel
 
Herzog
Saul Bellow
United States, novel
1965
missing graphic
Dune
Frank Herbert
United States, novel
1965–1971
The Sea of Fertility
Yukio Mishima
Japan, novel series
Includes Spring Snow, Runaway Horses, The Temple of Dawn, The Decay of the Angel
1966
missing graphic
Beautiful Losers
Canada, novel
 
A Jest of God
Canada, novel
 
The Magus
John Fowles
England, novel
 
Black Sheep
Georgette Heyer
England, novel
 
Wide Sargasso Sea
Jean Rhys
England, novel
 
Silence
Shūsaku Endō
Japan, novel
 
Season of Migration to the North
Tayeb Salih
Sudan, novel
 
In Cold Blood
Truman Capote
United States, novel
 
Flowers for Algernon
Daniel Keyes
United States, novel
 
The Crying of Lot 49
Thomas Pynchon
United States, novel
1966–1969
Song of Lawino
Okot p'Bitek
Uganda, poem
1967
One Hundred Years of Solitude
Gabriel García Márquez
Colombia, novel
 
Children of Gebelawi
Naguib Mahfouz
Egypt, novel
1968
2001: A Space Odyssey
Arthur C. Clarke
England, novel
 
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead
Tom Stoppard
England, play
 
The Third Policeman
Flann O'Brien
Ireland, novel
 
The Master and Margarita
Mikhail Bulgakov
Russia, novel
 
The Outsiders
S.E. Hinton
United States, novel
 
The Confessions of Nat Turner
William Styron
United States, novel
 
Cancer Ward
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Russia, novel
 
The First Circle
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Russia, novel
 
Belle du Seigneur
Albert Cohen
Switzerland, novel
 
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
United States, novella
 
The Lion in Winter
James Goldman
United States, play
 
missing graphic
The Armies of the Night
United States, novel
 
Myra Breckinridge
Gore Vidal
United States, novel
1968–2001
missing graphic
The Earthsea Cycle
United States, novel series
Includes A Wizard of Earthsea, The Tombs of Atuan, The Farthest Shore, The Other Wind, and others
1969
Little Painted Mouths
Manuel Puig
Argentina, novel
 
missing graphic
The French Lieutenant's Woman
John Fowles
England, novel
 
Master and Commander
Patrick O'Brian
England, novel
 
A Void
Georges Perec
France, novel
 
missing graphic
The Left Hand of Darkness
United States, novel
 
them
Joyce Carol Oates
United States, novel
 
The Godfather
Mario Puzo
United States, novel
 
United States, novel
 
Slaughterhouse Five
Kurt Vonnegut
United States, novel
1970
Fifth Business
Robertson Davies
Canada, novel
 
Crow
Ted Hughes
England, poetry collection
 
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
Maya Angelou
United States, memoir
 
Deliverance
James Dickey
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
Ringworld
Larry Niven
United States, novel
1970–1983
Anniversaries
Uwe Johnson
Germany, novel
1971
Lives of Girls and Women
Alice Munro
Canada, story collection
 
The Complete Stories
Franz Kafka
Germany, story collection
 
In a Free State
V.S. Naipaul
Trinidad, novel
 
The Bell Jar
Sylvia Plath
United States, novel
 
Angle of Repose
Wallace Stegner
United States, novel
1971–1983
missing graphic
Riverworld
United States, novel series
Includes To Your Scattered Bodies Go, The Fabulous Riverboat, The Dark Design, and others
1972
Watership Down
Richard Adams
England, novel
 
Invisible Cities
Italo Calvino
Italy, novella
 
The Twilight Years
Sawako Ariyoshi
Japan, novel
 
Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas
Hunter S. Thompson
United States, novel
1973
The Siege of Krishnapur
J.G. Farrell
England, novel
 
Gravity's Rainbow
Thomas Pynchon
United States, novel
1974
missing graphic
The Diviners
Canada, novel
 
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy
John le Carré
England, novel
 
The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum
Heinrich Böll
Germany, novella
 
History
Elsa Morante
Italy, novel
 
The Forever War
Joe Haldeman
United States, novel
 
The Dispossessed
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance
United States, novel
1975
W, or the Memory of Childhood
Georges Perec
France, novel
 
The Periodic Table
Primo Levi
Italy, memoir
 
Humboldt's Gift
Saul Bellow
United States, novel
 
Ragtime
E.L. Doctorow
United States, novel
1977
The Hour of the Star
Clarice Lispector
Brazil, novel
 
The Wars
Timothy Findley
Canada, novel
 
Aunt Julia and the Script-Writer
Mario Vargas Llosa
Peru, novel
 
A Part of Speech
Joseph Brodsky
Russia, poetry collection
 
Song of Solomon
Toni Morrison
United States, novel
1978
The Sea, the Sea
Iris Murdoch
England, novel
 
Life a User's Manual
Georges Perecs
France, novel
 
The Stories of John Cheever
John Cheever
United States, story collection
 
missing graphic
The World According to Garp
United States, novel
1979
If on a Winter's Night a Traveler
Italo Calvino
Italy, novel
 
A Bend in the River
V.S. Naipaul
Trinidad, novel
 
Burger's Daughter
Nadine Gordimer
South Africa, novel
 
Sophie's Choice
William Styron
United States, novel
1979–1992
missing graphic
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
England, novel series
Includes The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, and others
1980
The Name of the Rose
Umberto Eco
Italy, novel
 
Waiting for the Barbarians
J.M. Coetzee
South Africa, novel
 
Life and Fate
Vasily Grossman
Ukraine, novel
 
missing graphic
A Confederacy of Dunces
United States, novel
1981
Obasan
Joy Kogawa
Canada, novel
 
Chronicle of a Death Foretoold
Gabriel García Marquez
Colombia, novella
 
Midnight's Children
Salman Rushdie
India, novel
 
The War of the End of the World
Mario Vargas Llosa
India, novel
 
July's People
Nadine Gordimer
South Africa, novel
 
What We Talk About When We Talk About Love
Raymond Carver
United States, story collection
 
Red Dragon
Thomas Harris
United States, novel
 
Rabbit Is Rich
John Updike
United States, novel
1982
Schindler's List
Thomas Keneally
Australia, novel
 
Wittgenstein's Nephew
Thomas Bernhard
Austria, novel
 
The House of the Spirits
Isabel Allende
Chile, novel
 
Noises Off
Michael Frayn
England, play
 
 
missing graphic
Baltasar and Blimunda
Portugal, novel
 
"Master Harold"...and the Boys
Athol Fugard
South Africa, play
 
The Color Purple
Alice Walker
United States, novel
1982–1984
The Belgariad
David Eddings
United States, novel series
1983
The Life and Times of Michael K
J.M. Coetzee
South Africa, novel
1984
Neuromancer
William Gibson
Canada, novel
 
The Unbearable Lightness of Being
Milan Kundera
Czechoslovakia, novel
 
Money
Martin Amis
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Empire of the Sun
J.G. Ballard
England, novel
 
Hotel du Lac
Anita Brookner
England, novel
 
The Lover
Marguerite Duras
France, novella
 
The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis
José Saramago
Portugal, novel
 
Bright Lights, Big City
Jay McInerney
United States, novel
 
Glengarry Glen Ross
David Mamet
United States, play
1985
Annie John
Jamaica Kincaid
Antigua, novel
 
missing graphic
The Handmaid's Tale
Canada, novel
 
missing graphic
Love in the Time of Cholera
Gabriel García Márquez
Colombia, novel
 
Perfume: The Story of a Murderer
Patrick Suskind
Germany, novel
 
missing graphic
Ender's Game
United States, novel
 
White Noise
Don DeLillo
United States, novel
 
Blood Meridian
Cormac McCarthy
United States, novel
 
Lonesome Dove
Larry McMurtry
United States, novel
 
The Accidental Tourist
Anne Tyler
United States, novel
1985–1986
New York trilogy
Paul Auster
United States, novel series
1987
In the Skin of A Lion
Michael Ondaatje
Canada, novel
 
The Stone Diaries
Carol Shields
Canada, novel
 
The Radiant Way
Margaret Drabble
England, novel
 
Norwegian Wood
Haruki Murakami
Japan, novel
 
missing graphic
Ellen Foster
United States, novel
 
Misery
Stephen King
United States, novel
 
Beloved
Toni Morrison
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Bonfire of the Vanities
United States, novel
1988
Oscar and Lucinda
Peter Carey
Australia, novel
 
The Alchemist
Paulo Coelho
Brazil, novel
 
The Shadow Lines
Amitav Ghosh
India, novel
 
The Satanic Verses
Salman Rushdie
India, novel
 
Kitchen
Banana Yoshimoto
Japan, novel
 
The Joy Luck Club
Amy Tan
United States, novel
 
Breathing Lessons
Anne Tyler
United States, novel
 
Nervous Conditions
Dangarembga Tsitsi
Zimbabwe, novel
1989
London Fields
Martin Amis
England, novel
 
The Pillars of the Earth
Ken Follett
England, novel
 
The Remains of the Day
Kazuo Ishiguro
England, novel
 
missing graphic
The Quincunx
England, novel
 
The Great Indian Novelo
Shashi Tharoor
India, novel
 
Like Water for Chocolate
Laura Esquivel
Mexico, novel
 
The Storyteller
Mario Vargas Llosa
Peru, novel
 
A Prayer for Owen Meany
United States, novel
1990
Possession
A.S. Byatt
England, novel
 
Vertigo
W.G. Sebald
Germany, novel
 
Amongst Women
John McGahern
Ireland, poem
 
Omeros
Derek Walcott
St. Lucia, poem
 
Get Shorty
Elmore Leonard
United States, novel
 
The Things They Carried
Tim O'Brien
United States, story collection
1991
Couldstreet
Tim Winton
Australia, novel
 
Generation X
Douglas Coupland
Canada, novel
 
The Book of Disquiet
Fernando Pessoa
Portugal, novel
1991–1995
missing graphic
The Regeneration Trilogy
Pat Barker
England, novel series
Includes Regeneration, The Eye in the Door, The Ghost Road
1991–
Outlander
Diana Gabaldon
United States, novel series
1992
The English Patient
Michael Ondaatje
Canada, novel
 
Smilla's Sense of Snow
Peter Høeg
Denmark, novel
 
The Triple Mirror of the Self
Zulfikar Ghose
Pakistan, novel
 
The Crow Road
Iain Banks
Scotland, novel
 
Angels in America
Tony Kushner
United States, play
 
All the Pretty Horses
Cormac McCarthy
United States, novel
1993
Stranger Music: Selected Poems and Songs
Canada, poetry collection
 
Birdsong
Sebastian Faulks
England, novel
 
A Suitable Boy
Vikram Seth
India, novel
 
Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha
Roddy Doyle
Ireland, novel
 
The Shipping News
Annie Proulx
United States, novel
 
Arcadia
Tom Stoppard
England, play
1994
Captain Corelli's Mandolin
Louis de Bernieres
England, novel
1994–1995
The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle
Haruki Murakami
Japan, novel
1995
A Fine Balance
Rohinton Mistry
Canada, novel
 
missing graphic
Blindness
Portugal, novel
1995–2000
His Dark Materials
Philip Pullman
England, novel series
Includes Northern Lights (The Golden Compass), The Subtle Knife, The Amber Spyglass
1996
missing graphic
Alias Grace
Canada, novel
 
Fall on Your Knees
Ann-Marie MacDonald
Canada, novel
 
Chapayev and Pustota
Victor Pelevin
Russia, novel
 
Infinite Jest
David Foster Wallace
United States, novel
1996–2023
A Song of Fire and Ice
George R.R. Martin
United States, novel series
Includes A Game of Thrones, A Clash of Kings, A Storm of Swords, A Feast for Crows, A Dance with Dragons, and others
1997
The God of Small Things
Arundhati Roy
India, novel
 
Underworld
Don DeLillo
United States, novel
 
Cold Mountain
Charles Frazier
United States, novel
 
Mason and Dixon
Thomas Pynchon
United States, novel
 
American Pastoral
United States, novel
1997–2007
Harry Potter
J.K. Rowling
England, novel series
Includes Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, ...the Chamber of Secrets, ...and the Prisoner of Azkaban, and others
1998
The Colony of Unrequited Dreams
Wayne Johnston
Canada, novel
 
The Savage Detectives
Roberto Bolaño
Chile, novel
 
My Name Is Red
Orhan Pamuk
Turkey, novel
 
The Hours
Michael Cunningham
United States, novel
 
The Poisonwood Bible
Barbara Kingsolver
United States, novel
1999
Disgrace
J.M. Coetzee
South Africa, novel
 
Waiting
Ha Jin
United States, novel
 
Interpreter of Maladies
Jhumpa Lahiri
United States, story collection
2000
True History of the Kelly Gang
Peter Carey
Australia, novel
 
missing graphic
The Blind Assassin
Canada, novel
 
White Teeth
Zadie Smith
England, novel
 
Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress
Dai Sijie
France, novel
 
The Feast of the Goat
Mario Vargas Llosa
Peru, novel
 
Selected Prose and Poems
Paul Celan
Romania, prose and poetry collection
 
Bartleby and Co
Enrique Vila-Matas
Spain, novel
 
The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay
Michael Chabon
United States, novel
 
missing graphic
The Human Stain
United States, novel
2000–2003
Persepolis
Marjane Satrapi
Iran, graphic novel series
Includes Persepolis, Persepolis 2

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2001
Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage
Alice Munro
Canada, story collection
Includes Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage; The Bear Came Over the Mountain; and others
 
missing graphic
Clara Callan
Canada, novel
 
American Gods
Neil Gaiman
England, novel
 
missing graphic
Atonement
Ian McEwan
England, novel
 
Austerlitz
W.G. Sebald
Germany, novel
 
The Corrections
Jonathan Franzen
United States, novel
2002
Life of Pi
Yann Martel
Canada, novel
 
Middlesex
Jeffrey Eugenides
United States, novel
 
Fingersmith
Sarah Waters
Wales, novel
2003
The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time
Mark Haddon
England, novel
 
The Housekeeper and the Professor
Yoko Ogawa
Japan, novel
 
The Kite Runner
Khaled Hosseini
United States, novel
 
The Known World
Edward P. Jones
United States, novel
 
Vernon God Little
DBC Pierre
United States, novel
2004
A Complicated Kindness
Mariam Toews
Canada, novel
 
2666
Roberto Bolaño
Chile, novel
 
Jonathan Strange & Mr. Norrell
Susanna Clarke
England, novel
 
Cloud Atlas
David Mitchell
England, novel
 
Gilead
Marilynne Robinson
United States, novel
2005
The Book Thief
Markus Zusak
Australia, novel
 
Never Let Me Go
Kazuo Ishiguro
England, novel
 
Measuring the World
Daniel Kehlmann
Germany, novel
 
The Sea
John Banville
Ireland, novel
2005–2007
missing graphic
Millennium trilogy
Stieg Larsson
Sweden, novel series
Includes The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, The Girl Who Played with Fire, The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest
2006
The Inheritance of Loss
Kiran desai
India, novella
 
Half of a Yellow Sun
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Nigeria, novel
 
What Is the What
Dave Eggers
United States, memoir
 
The Road
Cormac McCarthy
United States, novel
2007
The Book of Negroes
Lawrence Hill
Canada, novel
 
The Gathering
Anne Enright
Ireland, novel
 
The Great Man
Kate Christenson
United States, novel
 
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
Junot Díaz
United States, novel
 
A Thousand Splendid Suns
Khaled Hosseini
United States, novel
2008
White Tiger
Aravind Adiga
India, novel
2009
Wolf Hall
Hilary Mantel
England, novel
 
Brooklyn
Colm Tóibín
Ireland, novel
 
Drive Your Plough Over the Bones of the Dead
Olga Tokarczuk
Poland, novel
 
Let the Great World Spin
Colum McCann
United States, novel
2009–2010
IQ84
Haruki Murakami
Japan, novel
2010
A Visit from the Goon Squad
Jennifer Egan
United States, novel
2011
Half-Blood Blues
Esi Edugyan
Canada, novel
 
My Brilliant Friend
Elena Ferrante
Italy, novel
2012
Gone Girl
Gillian Flynn
United States, novel
2013
The Luminaries
Eleanor Catton
New Zealand, novel
 
Americanah
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Nigeria, novel
2015–2017
Broken Earth trilogy
N.K. Jemisin
United States, novel series
Includes The Fifth Season, The Obelisk Gate, The Stone Sky
2016
The Underground Railroad
Colson Whitehead
United States, novel
2018
Too Much Lip
Melissa Lucashenko
Australia, novel
 
Normal People
Sally Rooney
Ireland, novel

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